Word Of The Lord || The Aggressive Vision || On
Line Library || Free Literature
Current Articles and What's New || Visions from The Lord || More About ACMTC || Contact
by General James Green
WHO, OR WHAT, is likened unto our “Mighty God”?...our “Almighty God” (παντοκράτωρ — pantokrator, “almighty, “all-sovereign,” “all-controlling”)? This name occurs both as an adjective and as a noun. Found relatively rarely in pagan literature, it is used frequently for “God” in the Greek Old Testament (LXX), and in early Jewish writings.
Genesis 17:1 (OT)
HERE WE FIND the words “Almighty God” for the first time; also in Genesis 28:3; 35:11; 43:14; 48:3 and 49:25 (el, Strong’s# Hebrew 410; shadday, Strong’s# Hebrew 7706). The Heb. = “shadday” – “shad-dah’ee.” The primitive root = “shadad” = “powerful” (passive impregnable); “to ravage,” “destroy,” “spoil,” and “utterly lay waste.”
WE FIND THIS NAME mentioned 9 times (pantokrator) in Revelation; it is found once in 2 Cor. 6:18 where the apostle Paul referred to an OT quotation, “And I will be a Father to you, and you shall be My sons and daughters, says the Lord Almighty” (Hosea 1:10; Isa. 43:6).
IN THE PAGAN WORLD, “pantokrator” occurs from time to time (but rarely) as an attribute of deities, such as Hermes (Epigr. Graeca 815, 11; PGM = Poetae Melici Graeci, 7, 668); Eriunios Hermes (CiG = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecorum) 2569, 12; Isis (IG = Inscritpriones Graecae) V 2, 472 and the Egyptian sun-god Mandulis (SB = Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Aegypten) 4127, 19. In addition, there are paraphrases, according to Prof. R. Feldmeier (Bayreuth), of the term found in Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum (editor = W. Dittenberger) 3, 1138, 2-4. He thinks this is due to Jewish influence, which is probably true.
PANTOKRATOR IS FOUND 180 times in the LXX (as a Divine designation). For the most part, it is a rendering of “seba’ot” (Yahweh zebaoth 120 times), a feminine plural of “saba” = “armies.” Ah, now we’re getting a true picture of “The Almighty God of Armies!!”...not “church”!!
Scholars point out that the above is usually interpreted as an intensive abstract-plural, i.e.; as an expression of Divine MIGHT !! Amen. Today’s church sees God as a sissy-la-la. That’s their problem — I see Him, and know Him, as ALMIGHTY GOD, COMMANDER OF HIS ARMIES.
It should also be noted that there are an additional 60 or so uses of the term “pantokrator” in the LXX, 16 of them in the Book of Job, as a translation of “sadday” (Shadday).
If the rendering of “seba’ot” as “pantokrator” is not necessarily conclusive, then this translation of “sadday,” whose etymology can no longer be definitely clarified, is at least dubious.
It should also be noted that the Gk. OT has many more occurrences of “pantokrator” which do not appear in the Hebrew text. So, it is obvious that the Gk. speaks of God’s POWER more often. Feldmeier believes that this was a Jewish reaction to the idea of a comprehensive global power, introduced by Alexander the Great, and adopted by the Gk. Jews (Hellenistic) and, finally, by the Roman Empire—an idea which, after all, is also given a religious basis (cf. the religious epithets of the rulers, such as soter, epiphanies, deus et dominus, etc. = “ruler cult;” see 1 Macc. 1:11-15). With all the cultish religions and belief systems in existence, I can see why the LXX emphasized the use of Almighty God/God Almighty, for He alone is Creator, therefore, ALL-POWERFUL.
The Bible confirms this, along with early Jewish pseudepigraphical and apocryphal writings. The book of Judith (written between 150 and 100 BC) mentions “kyrios pan tokra tor” 5 times alone, always in the context of inimical threat either still existing or having been repelled (see Jdt. 4:13; 8:13; 15:10; 16:5, 17).
I love Judith 16:17 where the final “victory” song is sung (Victory of Kyrios pantokrator): “Woe to the nations that rise up against My people. The Lord Almighty will punish them on the Day of Judgment.” Amen! (God’s true people are the NT covenant people who KEEP His command-ments!).
2 Macc. speaks of God as the Almighty (2 Macc. 1:25; 3:22, 30; 8:24; 15:8 in ref. to repulsion). Note 8:18: “They…trust both in weapons and audacity, but we (Israel) rely on the God Almighty, who is able to overthrow our assailants and the whole world with a nod of His head.” Friends, He is still able to do this even today! The Almighty God is Creator, lawyer, judge and executioner (6:26; 7:35, 38; 8:11 cf. 15:32).
Moving on to 3 Macc. 1 (in ref. to Ptolemy IV Philopator’s intention to enter the temple, the high priest Simon appeals to God): “LORD: LORD (kyrios), king (basileus) of Heaven, ruler (despotes) of all creation, holy among holy ones, sole ruler (monarchos), all-sovereign (pantokrator), pay heed to us who are sorely vexed by a wicked and corrupt man, reckless in his effrontery and mighty. For you who created all things and govern (epikraton) the whole world are a just ruler (dynastes)…” (3 Macc. 2:2, 3).
THERE ARE OTHER NAMES that express the general notion of “Deity,” as El, Elohim (‘God’); others are descriptive titles applied to Deity, such as El Shaddai (AV ‘God Almighty’), El Elyon (‘God Most High’); while from the Exodus, Jehovah is the personal name of the God of Israel. The names El, Elohim, Shaddai, and Jehovah are prehistoric.
El: (Heb.) “to be strong,” “the strong” (Arab. root ul = “to be in front,” “to govern,” “power,” “might.” In Hebrew prose, the word is usually connected with an epithet, such as “the Living God,” “the Eternal God,” “God Most High.”
Elohim: (both singular and plural). The singular is used in Ps. 18, Deut. 32, etc.; the plural comes from el, formed by inserting ‘h’; it is only in plurals of the feminine form that there is an insertion of ‘h’ (Syr. plural “shemohin” - names).
Elohim, as expressing the fullness of might or powers contained in God, is too abstract, as some Heb. scholars believe. They reason that the plural may be easiest explained as a plural of eminence, like ‘adonim, be’alim (‘lord’); teraphim (1 Sam. 19:13, 16), and possibly nogesim (‘ruler’; Isa. 3:12).
Also, the plural appears in Ethiopic ‘amlak, ‘God’ (unused singular malek), and in the Amarna letters the plural ilam, ‘God,’ is used in addressing the Egyptian king.
El Shaddai: This name is old (Gen. 49:25), and is said by Paul to have been the patriarchal name of God (Gen. 17:1; Ex. 6:3), meaning “mighty,” “Almighty” etc.
Don’t be confused by the Heb. “shedim,” which means “demons” (Ps. 106:37). And, Deut. 32:17, when naming them, adds ‘no God’. One scholar puts it this way: “Such a topsy-turvy of meaning is a triumph of etymology” (Professor A.B. Davidson, Dict. of the Bible, vol. 2, p. 199).
Reference has also been made to the Assyrian Shadu, “mountain,” from root “to be high,” with the suggestion that Shaddai either means “mountain” (cf. zur,= “rock,” as title of God) or has the adjectival sense of “most high.” The most that can be said is that the meaning, “Almighty,” has a certain tradition in its favor.
Jehovah: Another ancient name (Gen. 4:26), though at the Exodus it received a special meaning by being connected with the Heb. verb “to be.” The Heb. word acquired a sacredness; in reading, the name Adonai, “Lord,” was substituted for it; hence in MSS and prints, the vowels of Adonai were attached to the letters, and Jehovah is a conflate form with the consonants of one word and the vowels of another.
The contracted forms in which the name appears suggests that the original form of the word was Yahweh, or “yahve” (a Gk. transliteration is αβέ). It has been connected with Arabic hawa, “to blow” or “breath,” Jehovah being the God who is heard in the tempest—the storm-God; or with the verb howa, “to fall” (see Job 37:6), in the causative (“make to be”), i.e., “the creator,” or fulfiller of his promises; and so on.
In Hebrew, the (historical period) name is connected with Hebrew hayah, “to be,” in the imperfect. With regard to this verb, first, it does not mean “to be” essentially or ontologically, but phenomenally; and secondly, the imperfect has not the sense of a present (“am”), but of a future (“will be”). In Ex. 3:10, when Moses demurred to go to Egypt, God assured him, saying, “I will be with thee.” So, when God speaks it is, “I will be…,” when speaking of Himself, and Yahweh; “He will be,” when spoken of by others.
Jehovah vs. Baal
IT IS SAID THAT THE RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT of Israel is virtually a development in the idea of God…as He was the only force in the world with ALL POWER ! In Israel the religion’s progress appears in the form of a conflict. And if a conflict implies lower elements and conceptions, it also implies a higher element which was conscious of the lower, and strove either to eject it or transform it. So it goes.
God was aware of the demons in the land. The Bible does not tell us just where these demons came from. Did He create them? Maybe. We do know that God’s people struggle against such demonic forces in the form of idols, despotisms, powers, master spirits; who are the world rulers, and forces of wickedness in the supernatural sphere. In fact, the Bible lists quite a few evil beings (by name); also angels.
In a general way, the religious history of Israel may be divided into 3 periods, in each of which the CONFLICT resulted in a clearer conception of God, or, of Jehovah—the God of Israel:
1—Exodus period to the revolution of Jehu.
It was out in the wilderness that Jehovah gave Israel the 10 Commandments, the first being, “You shall have no other gods (idols/demons) before or besides Me” (Ex. 20:3). Verse 4 follows up with “You shall not make yourself any graven image (to worship it), or any likeness of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.” Verse 5 follows up with “You shall not bow down yourself to them nor serve them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me” (see Isa. 42:8; 48:11). You may want to read my long article on the jealous God, entitled, “Whose Name is Jealous” (see Ex. 34:14).
The revolution of Jehu put its seal on the life-work of Elijah; it gave national expression to his demand: “If Jehovah be God, follow Him” (1 Kgs. 18:21). And this cry is still in force as I write ! WHO ARE YOU FOLLOWING?
To the masses, the struggle was both an internal and external one between Jehovah and deities; especially between Jehovah and Baal.
2—The prophetic period.
The conflict resulting in the recognition of Jehovah as GOD ALONE, at least in Israel.
In this period, there arose the conflict between Jehovah and Jehovah-Baal, between two conceptions of Him—the popular and the prophetic. In the popular conception, Jehovah was still mainly Israel’s national god, god of the land; while to the prophets, Jehovah was Almighty, the ethical Being, the righteous Ruler. Think about this. Is not spiritual Israel’s (Catholic Church) the god of “stuff and things,” not the God of Holiness/Righteousness? The Jesus of today has gone MODERN, allowing spiritual Israel to worship the world!
3—From the destruction of the state, onward.
The prophetic principles regarding Jehovah had been conspicuously illustrated in the national history: Jehovah was God ALONE!; He was HOLY; His nature was inscribed in letters of fire across the people’s life and experience…yet for most, they were rather abstract.
FROM THE PROPHET HOSEA DOWNWARDS, writers stigmatized the corrupt worship of Jehovah at the high places as Baal worship. So, where are today’s men/women of God decrying modern Baal worship…the worship of another Jesus, another God, yet still claiming them to be their God? Almighty God used to be the ONLY God of America. This is a historical fact. But, like ancient Israel, AMERICA HAS GROWN WEARY OF HIM, therefore she has raised up another national god of her liking. This is the god that accepts homosexuality, adultery, fornication, liars, cheats, drunkards, druggies, frauds etc., etc. Hence, JUDGMENT !!
In The Beginning
ISRAEL’S SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS, as a nation, was virtually identical with its consciousness of Jehovah—its God. Jehovah, indeed, was all-in-all, the people were mediums thru which Jehovah manifested Himself. Wish I could say this about America today. Ha! This nation displays the dirty deeds of demons and LOVES it so !
Jehovah of Hosts
THE EARLIER PART of the period from Exodus to the fall of the house of Omri was a time of WARFARE…till God gave rest under David. And, it was during that time that the name “Jehovah of Hosts,” or fully, “Jehovah, God of Hosts” was used as the loftiest name for Jehovah—suggesting His “Royal Majesty” and infinite power = ALL POWER!
With unique intensity, the Bible heaps upon God many titles for rulers in order to identify Him as the TRUE RULER of this world in the face of many gods and goddesses etc. Therefore, in the early history of Israel, the Bible recapitulates the salvation history in the context of God’s resistance to human/demonic rulers (see prayer of Eleazar in 3 Macc. 5:7 and 6:18, 28).
PHILO, PRESUMABLY due to the Stoic doctrine of the hegemonikon, prefers the designation panhegemon for God; he uses the term pantokrator only two times (Sacr. Ac 63; Gig. 64—that is De Sacrificiis Abelis et Caini 63 and De Gigantibus 64).
Pantokrator is used in a similar way in a few pseudepigraphical writings [Pseudepigrapha = writings, as a form of divine address by mortals (see 3 Baruch 1:3; 4 Bar. 1:5; 9:5; Pr M. or Pr. Mon. = Protestantische Monatshefte 1)].
Philo uses Pantokrator often with Jehovah’s Day of Judgment and sometimes also explicitly with His sovereignty and His Kingdom (Gig. 64; T. Abr. 8:3;15:12 (De Abrahamo).
Furthermore, 3 Bar. 1:3, and 4 Bar. 1:5, and 9:5, and also P. Mon. uses this word in the context of enemy repulsion and the request for Jehovah’s help and power. Strange as it seems, Josephus does not use pantokrator. The all-sovereignty of God in his Ant. 10, 263 is paraphrased (by the Persian Great King Darius) as to panton Kratos echon.
The divine designation pantokrator must be understood as a Hellenistic-Jewish equivalent to the concept of the Kingdom of God (KOG = Basileia Tou Theou), which Jesus Himself preached, and which we MUST also preach. TO HELL with the kingdom(s) of men !!
The Father / The Son
WHAT GOD THE FATHER TAUGHT, God the Son taught. The holy prophets and authors of the OT wrote that God/Jehovah was ABSOLUTELY HOLY, the impersonation of the moral idea; the moral EVIL, alone, is SIN; and that the only service Jehovah desires is a righteous life, a life void of rebellion/idolatry etc. Jesus preaches this in the NT, or have you forgotten??
Isaiah wrote of Jehovah as the transcendent Sovereign and universal LORD. Isaiah expresses his conception in the term kadosh, of which “holy” is a very imperfect rendering. “Holiness” is not primarily a moral quality (in one sense), it is the expression of godhead in the absolute sense. “The Holy One of Israel” is a paradox, meaning that the transcendent God has become God of Israel. Isaiah, in one thought goes beyond other prophets: he insists on righteousness—that the consciousness of Jehovah should be ever present in the mind. Where are those today that hold to this? GONE with the WIND! What we have in churchy-church today is complete insensitivity to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit…even the Word itself. Church does not even recognize Christ as their Lord or King, but, as some sort of religious partner—in name only. Why today’s church (in the USA) is more in love with the levity/exaltation of human life, exaltation of nation…demanding full rights for queers/trans-genders/lesbians/child-molesters etc. They DEMAND the full ethicizing of what God’s Word calls ABOMINATION !!
Let me tell you the truth: godly morality is of no nationality; it transcends nationality, and is not human. The righteousness of God is universal, over all. It is God who decides who lives, who dies, who goes to Heaven, who goes to Hell !! Period.
JEHOVAH AND THE WORLD ARE AT WAR! When is the Church going to accept this? While it is true that His salvation shall be to the ends of the earth (Isa. 49:6), so shall His damnation. Not all will be “saved” as so many today teach. HA! True universalism is the RULE of GOD over His creation. His creation of man (Isa. 42:5) and His creation of earth (45:18) can’t be changed; His destruction of both can’t be changed either. His call to ancient Israel to be His servant, and the revelation of Himself within it (Isa. 42:1-6; 45:19-25; 49:1-6), and His call to the new Israel (New True Covenant Ekklesia) is the same. He demands His people to be “holy,” to be “separated,” “consecrated,” “dedicated”; ANYTHING LESS IS OF THE DEVIL.
Stop wrestling with your calling. ACCEPT IT, GO WITH IT.
Jehovah = Jahweh
THIS COVENANT NAME Jehovah or Jahweh was considered too sacred to be pronounced aloud except in the temple. Besides the common substitution of Adonai or Elohim in reading, a number of paraphrases were in use, all prompted by the instinct of reverence (fear of the LORD). In the Greek, the usual substitute was κύριος (Kurios). This conveyed, of course, indirectly the full connotation of Jehovah; directly, it gave prominence to the idea of sovereignty.
Within God’s sovereignty we find Him omni-present = He’s everywhere at the same time; omniscient = He knows all things; and omnipotent = He’s all-powerful — The Almighty One. Scripture also speaks of HIS ETERNALITY — HE ALWAYS WAS, HE ALWAYS WILL BE!! This is the kind of God I serve!!! And, God is One, but at the same time, consists of Three Persons, without negating the “unity” of Jehovah. I’m not referring to the “trinity,” but to the “Tri-unity” of God.
For The Record
DEUTERONOMY 6:4-5 (The Shema) was, and still is, the very center of Judaism: “Shema Yisrael Adonai Elohenu Adonai Echad.” “Shema” = “hear” (Hebrew) is the first word spoken; the last word of the Shema is Echad, which is translated into English as the word “One”; thus, a compound-unity noun, that is to say, a noun which demonstrates “oneness” or “unity,” but, at the same time, contains several entities (see Gen. 1:5; 2:24; Num. 13:23; Ezra 2:64; Jer. 32:38, 39; etc.).
If you’re not satisfied with this, there is another Hebrew word, “yachid,” that signifies “oneness,” see Gen. 22:2 (“only”) is yachid. It is used again in vv. 12 and 16 of some chapters. There is just one son whom God recognizes. Isaac is the son of promise—there is none other. In this sense, yachid sets forth absolute singularity—one, and only one (see also Prov. 4:3; Ps. 22:20; Jud. 11:34; Jer. 6:26; Amos 8:10; Zech. 12:10). So, we have two words that convey “oneness” = echod (compound unity, yet “one”) and yachid, absolute singular, literally one, and we know it.
As already stated, the Hebrew El and Elohim means “the all-powerful, Almighty One.” Both of these nouns are actually the same. One, however, El, is the singular form, Elohim is plural. Of the 2,750 times these words are used in the OT, Elohim (pl.) is used 2,500 times.
Another instance is found in the Shema. The noun “God” is the Hebrew Elohenu. Elohenu reflects both the plural pronoun “our” God, as well as the plural form Elohim. Plurality in personal pronouns, when used in reference to the Lord, lends additional documentation to verify the “Tri-unity” of God (see Gen. 1:26, 27 = “us” and “our”). Plurality (“us” / “our”) is fused with singular terms (“image” and “likeness”), thereby, displaying a “unity-in-plurality,” (v. 27 = God refers to Himself in the personal singular pronouns “His” / “He”). See Gen. 3:22, 23 = “become as one of US” = the personal plural pronoun. We also find this in Gen. 11:7, 8 where the plural personal pronoun “us” is used followed by a reference to God (“let us go down”).
One could go through the prophets for confirmation of the “Tri-unity” truth. And, we could go into the NT for the same, where Jesus the Messiah is God. John 10:33 is a good place to start. Jesus was both God and man in His earthly life. This is entirely another subject to explore.
Move on Pantokrator
IN THE BOOK OF REVELATION, we find this word mentioned a grand total of 9 times. This is no accident and confirms against the “political,” as one scholar put it, “character of this divine attribute”. This was used during a desperate period (presently and for the future); a prelude to a devilish attempt to “get rid of those Christians!” The Whore of Babylon was (and is!) the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth (Rev. 17:5).
This devilish thing was “drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus…” (v. 6). Almighty God was in opposition to this world power.
The shortened expression, “ho Theos ho pantokrator” occurs 2 times in connection with the Almighty’s or His Messiah’s battle against the godless people and their kings (Rev. 16:14; 19:15). “Kyrios” is used 7 times. In Rev. 4:8 we find beings giving praise: “Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come,” with the sabaoth from Isa. 6:3 (LXX) being transformed into pantokrator.
This is not all—in Rev. 11:17 we find the 24 elders giving thanks saying, “O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee Thy great powers and hast reigned.”
In 15:3 we find a song sung: “…Great and marvelous are Thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, thou King of saints.” And in 16:7 we find, “…another out of the altar say, ‘Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are Thy judgments.” Readers, are you ready for the Almighty’s judgments? Better get ready—THEY ARE HERE !!
In 19:6 we read: “And I heard as it were the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, ‘Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent (all-powerful) reigneth.’”
AS MUCH AS EVIL MEN (and demons) want to DO AWAY WITH HIM, it is impossible, for He is, IS !, the Alpha = beginning/first, and the Omega = ending/last (Rev. 1:8).
LORD/Lord of History
AS MUCH AS MEN WISH that God is not the ONLY TRUE GOD, the ALMIGHTY ONE, HE IS !!! The core, the heart of Rev. 1:8— “Which IS!, and which WAS!, and which IS TO COME!, the Almighty.” That is, God IS the LORD/Lord of history—past, present, and future. He has all 3 in His hands. Get used to it !!
From John’s point of time, he saw “no temple…for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it (the celestial city of God)” (Rev. 21:22). This is why it is so foolish to think that God will promote a third temple for the Jews. No need. The Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ARE all we need—we, His NT True Ekklesia are their temple. Get your eyes off carnal Jerusalem folks; get your eyes on what God is building NOW! “Ye also, as lively (living) stones, are built up a spiritual house (temple), an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices (no need for animals, dear Jews!), acceptable to God by Jesus Christ” (1 Pet. 2:5). If you’re not content with that…read on: “But ye (NT covenant people) ARE (now) a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation (not racial Israel), a people peculiar people (of all nations)…” (v. 9).
All this points to the motif of God’s reign over His Kingdom, a motif which occurs often in Revelation in connection with the designation of God as pantokrator. It is directly mentioned in 11:17 (ebasileusas), 15:3 (hobasileus tonethnon), 19:6 (ebasileusen) and 19:16 (basileus basileon). So, dear ones, the divine pantokrator, therefore, stresses, quite firmly, in opposition to the world’s claim for world power. As I write (April, 2013) there are evil forces world-wide opposing God’s authority verbally.
In truth, God’s power is typically apocalyptic-hidden, but, He is demonstrating more and more His power to contend with Anti-Christ/anti-Christs.
IN DIDACHE 10, 3; 1 Clem 2, 3; 32, 4; 60, 4; 62, 2), pantokrator is found. And we find mention of this word in the Epistle of Polycarp 2, 2 Phil., prol; Justin, Dial. 16, 4; etc. Clement of Alexandria calls Christ, the “Father’s Logos” (pantokrator; poed. 1, 9). Irenaeus’ Adv. Haer. 5, 18, 2 mentions it also. Origen’s Selin Ps. 23:10 mentions both Father and Son. Prof. Feldmeirer mentions that under the pressure of the anti-Arian controversy, Athanasius then emphatically called Christ pantokrator (see Or. 2c. Arian 23 = oratio[nes]).
IN CLOSING, we need to be warned not to believe nor accept the false idea that God is inapproachable—a kind of “far off” Celestial Ruler, which came in during the Byzantine period. GOD AND SON ARE VERY MUCH APPROACHABLE. WE CAN (AND MUST) HAVE A PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THEM. We do not need a Pope in order to “get through” to God and Son (e.g., like in Roman Catholicism). We may well recall this original “Sitz im Leben” because of the common idea of the pantokrator as the inapproachable celestial ruler (an idea still alive in the R. Catholic church — a false Christian empire!). Catholicism has created a divine ideal in order to legitimize its own claim to world power. But, God will rip off her purple robe and expose her whoredoms and murders which she has committed. The Almighty God will do this. And I might add, He will do the same to her bastard / whore daughters of the Protestant camp.
The days of His WRATH ARE HERE!!
[ * STUDY MATERIAL HAS BEEN ADAPTED FROM ITS ORIGINAL SOURCES * ]